GEOGRAPHY AND NATURAL RESOURCES

The territory of Municipality of Shumen is a part of the Danube valley and is dominated by hilly and unvarying terrain. South of Samuilovsky visochini, between the low stream of Vrana river, Shumensko pole and the upper stream of Madarska river is situated the Shumen Plateau having its highest point of 502m. South of Kaspichansko pole between the valley of Madarska river and Kamchiya river is situated Madarsko pole. Shumensko pole is a part of the Shumen karst region. More than 60 caves have been explored here.

The territory of the municipality is characterized by temperate continental climate. Main factors which define this climate pattern are related to the location of the municipality whose territory is a part of the Danube valley. It allows the smooth flow of northwest, north and northeast air masses. The average annual solar radiation is 2204 hours which is higher than the average for the country due to the average low cloudiness. The average temperature range is typical for the temperate continental climate pattern – hot summer and cold winter. The average monthly temperature of the coolest month January is -1,1C. The average monthly temperature of the warmest month July is + 22 C. It forms a considerable average temperature range of 23-24 degrees. Average annual temperature is of 16,9 C.

Annual rainfall precipitation is 606m. Monthly and seasonal rainfall distribution is typical of the continental climate pattern – maximum rainfall in late spring and early summer and minimum in late summer and autumn. Typical are hails and intense rainfalls in warmer months of the year. The predominant wind direction is northeast, west and northwest. As a result snowdrifts are formed which as a consequence leads for transport links to be blocked.

Climate characteristics and geological base define the rain, snow and karst regime of the rivers as well as the limited surface water flows. Rainfalls are the main source of soil humidity. The biggest water resource constantly flowing is Golyama Kamchiya river. Other important rivers flowing along are Poroyna, Divdyadovska, Pakusha, and Madarska.

Constructed are a lot of water storage basins but smaller water storage reservoirs are frequently seen. The biggest water storage basin – the Ticha dam, is located outside Shumen municipality borders and is used as a water supply source for municipality of Shumen, municipality of Targovishte, municipality of Veliki Preslav and many irrigation activities, too. A high quality mineral water spring was discovered near the village of Marash which is located 10 km from Shumen.

Soils’ structure is influenced by the geological conditions and is influenced by climatic conditions, relief and local plants cover. Soils are primarily black carbonates (near the villages of Velino, Tzarev brod, Makak, north of Matnitza and Madara) typical black earth (near the villages of Dibich, Madara and Panayot Volov), low and stony carbonate black soils cover the Shumen Plateau territory, leach black soils (near Ivansky, Vetrishte, Drumevo) podzolized black soils, grey forest soils, and shallow soils near the village of Ivansky. Alluvial – lawn soils are spread along the rivers’ terraces.Soil diversity on the municipality of Shumen territory favours the intense agricultural development and is a valuable natural resource.

The main tree species that can be seen here are several kinds of oak trees, hornbeam trees, elm trees, ash trees, maple trees, linden, acacia, lilac, mulberry and wild pear. Along the north slopes of the Shumen Plateau as well as other north facing slopes are entirely conserved moesian beech tree species. Bush species that are spread are such as sumac, euonymus, wild grapes (vitus vinifera), thorn bushes, hawthorn, hazel bush and elder. In the Bukaka reserve is conserved а forest of moesian beech trees which are more than one hundred years old. This is the biggest of its kind entirely preserved forest belonging to the Danube valley territory.

Animal species vary in terms of mammal representatives and are limited in terms of birds, amphibians and reptiles. The most frequent representatives are wild boars, steppe polecats, spermophilus citellus, the gray hamster, the rabbit and the hedgehog. Birds diversity is represented by crows, grey partridges, quails and near the water resources are the great and small bustard.